I really can’t believe it: I’m done with first year of medicine! Time really flies fast… I can still remember my first day in Sydney and before I knew it, one whole year has whisked past me! To the frequent visitors of my blog, sorry for not updating – been busy with all sorts of stuff but as usual, here’s a post on my exam questions from yesterday’s paper…Question 1X and Y are twin brothers. X has a normal functioning heart but Y has got a case of aortic stenosis which is the narrowing of the aortic valve.
(a) Describe the anatomical features of the normal left ventricle in X. Also, include in your answer the valves present as well as the blood flow and haemodynamic changes during the cardiac cycle.
(b) Describe the anatomical and physiological changes that occur in the left ventricle of Y as the result of the aortic stenosis, giving reasons for each of these changes. Also, describe at least 3 possible complications that may arise.Question 2Marco (>60 years old) presented to the hospital with retrosternal chest pain. Diagnostic serum protein levels led to the diagnosis of myocardial infarction.
(a) Describe the pathophysiological changes that led to Marco’s condition, including the changes to the artery as well as the different risk factors involved.
(b) Compare and contrast the elevation in serum marker levels of CK-MB and Troponin-I following the myocardial infarction. Describe at least 5 fatal complications that Marco may experience.Question 3One of your patients, Isabella (40+ years old), comes into your GP clinic one day with her 20-year-old disgruntled son, Leo. The last time Isabella came to see you, she was sick with the flu and had been so sick she couldn’t smoke at all.
Recently, her cousin died of heart attack and so, she’s worried for Leo who is unemployed, smokes and drinks excessively as well as just staying at home and playing X-box everyday. Upon further examination, you discovered Isabella’s blood pressure to be consistently >140/95 and Leo’s to be around 125/80. When questioned, Isabella reported that she has had several episodes of angina in the past.
(a) List the key lifestyle issues involved in Leo’s case. Outline the major secondary prevention that the public can use to prevent people of the same age group as Leo from smoking.
(b) List the key lifestyle issues involved in Isabella’s case. Outline the secondary prevention strategies that you can advise Isabella as a GP to avoid progression to disease.Question 4
(a) Describe the autonomic nervous system, including the sympathetic and parasympathetic systems with the central origin and peripheral distribution.
(b) List all the major neurotransmitters and receptors involved for both the sympathetic and parasympathetic systems.
(c) Describe how the sympathetic system aids in thermoregulation in the case of a cold environment, including in your answer all the receptors and neurotransmitters involved.
There you go, the 4 "short answer" questions from Health Maintenance A which accompany a whole other multitude of MCQ and practical questions… Summer break has begun for us; woohoo! To those of you back home, I can barely take it any longer – I miss you tons and heaps! I’ll see you guys soon! ^_^
Labels: Australia, Medicine